"Supports fetal & infant brain and cognitive development"
Choline is recognized by numerous healthcare authorities* as a
key nutrient during pregnancy.
During pregnancy and breastfeeding, the demand for choline increases to meet the nutritional needs of the fetus and infant.
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The Adequate Intake (AI) of Choline is correspondingly higher during pregnancy (450mg/day) and lactation (550mg/day).
*including the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), Europe Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the World Health Organization (WHO)
During pregnancy, a higher intake of choline is associated with a multitude of benefits^ for the infant, such as:
Lower risks of neural tube defects,
Demonstration of better attention, behaviour, language abilities,
Lower levels of stress hormone (cortisol) in newborns - as a result of decreased expression of placenta corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)^^.
^In studies which examined expectant mothers who consumed higher amounts (≥ 450mg/day) of choline throughout various stages of pregnancy
^^CRH enters the fetal blood circulation and stimulates fetal cortisol production. This may lead increased stress reactivity in the fetus - a potential lifelong effect. It has been demonstrated in other studies that a heightened response to stress increases the risk of depression, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and other disorders later in life.
After birth, choline remains an essential nutrient for the infant's growth.
Choline has been shown to enhance the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, a type of omega-3) and lutein in promoting the brain and cognitive development of the infant.
Exclusively-breastfed infants are entirely reliant on their mothers' milk for choline.
Choline Fact Sheet: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Choline-HealthProfessional/
Caudil M.A. et al. Building better babies: Should Choline Supplementation be recommended for pregnant and lactating mothers? Literature overview and expert panel consensus. European Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2020; 2(3):149-161
Korsmo H.W. et al. Choline: Exploring the Growing science Science on Its Benefits for Moms and Babies. Nutrients. 2019; 11,1823
Dror D.K. et al. Overview of Nutrients in Human Milk. Adv Nutr. 2018; 9:278S-294S
Cheatham C.L. Synergistic Effects of Human Milk Nutrients in the support of Infant Recognition Memory: An Observational study. Nutrients. 2015; 7(11):9075-9095.
Caudill M.A. et al. Maternal Choline Supplementation During the Third Trimester of Pregnancy Improves Infant Information Processing Speed: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Feeding Study. FASEB J. 2018;32(4):2172-2180.
Zhang L. et al. Epigenetic Mechanisms in Development Programming of Adult Disease. Drug Discov. Today. 2011; 16:1007-1018.