"Supports fetal & infant brain and cognitive development"
Choline is recognized by numerous healthcare authorities* as a
key nutrient during pregnancy.
During pregnancy and breastfeeding, the demand for choline increases to meet the nutritional needs of the fetus and infant.
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The Adequate Intake (AI) of Choline is correspondingly higher during pregnancy (450mg/day) and lactation (550mg/day).
*including the American Congress of Obstetricians and Gynecologists (ACOG), American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP), Europe Food Safety Authority (EFSA) and the World Health Organization (WHO)
During pregnancy, a higher intake of choline is associated with a multitude of benefits^ for the infant, such as:
Lower risks of neural tube defects,
Demonstration of better attention, behaviour, language abilities,
Lower levels of stress hormone (cortisol) in newborns - as a result of decreased expression of placenta corticotropin-releasing hormone (CRH)^^.
^In studies which examined expectant mothers who consumed higher amounts (≥ 450mg/day) of choline throughout various stages of pregnancy
^^CRH enters the fetal blood circulation and stimulates fetal cortisol production. This may lead increased stress reactivity in the fetus - a potential lifelong effect. It has been demonstrated in other studies that a heightened response to stress increases the risk of depression, Type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension and other disorders later in life.
After birth, choline remains an essential nutrient for the infant's growth.
Exclusively-breastfed infants are entirely reliant on their mothers' milk for choline.
Choline has been shown to enhance the effects of docosahexaenoic acid (DHA, a type of omega-3) and lutein in promoting the brain and cognitive development of the infant.
Choline Fact Sheet: https://ods.od.nih.gov/factsheets/Choline-HealthProfessional/
Caudil M.A. et al. Building better babies: Should Choline Supplementation be recommended for pregnant and lactating mothers? Literature overview and expert panel consensus. European Gynecology and Obstetrics. 2020; 2(3):149-161
Korsmo H.W. et al. Choline: Exploring the Growing science Science on Its Benefits for Moms and Babies. Nutrients. 2019; 11,1823
Dror D.K. et al. Overview of Nutrients in Human Milk. Adv Nutr. 2018; 9:278S-294S
Cheatham C.L. Synergistic Effects of Human Milk Nutrients in the support of Infant Recognition Memory: An Observational study. Nutrients. 2015; 7(11):9075-9095.
Caudill M.A. et al. Maternal Choline Supplementation During the Third Trimester of Pregnancy Improves Infant Information Processing Speed: A Randomized, Double-Blind Controlled Feeding Study. FASEB J. 2018;32(4):2172-2180.
Zhang L. et al. Epigenetic Mechanisms in Development Programming of Adult Disease. Drug Discov. Today. 2011; 16:1007-1018.